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In , the Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio.

The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1, territories.

Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction of From , the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history.

In , then again in and , the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire , agreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states , fell under the influence of France. Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bund , a loose league of 39 sovereign states.

Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich.

The Zollverein , a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many, especially young, Germans.

The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unity , freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe , which established a republic in France , intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.

King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.

Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in , which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula.

After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War , the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versailles , uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland.

Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.

Under Wilhelm II , Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.

Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in the creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary , promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support.

Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.

In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between and , the German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples , as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.

After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, [46] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home.

In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers , accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.

Germany was declared a federal republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November , with 18 substates in It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.

After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23 , a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.

Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.

In public work projects of , 1. In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.

Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in , [62] remilitarised the Rhineland in , annexed Austria in , annexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnacht , or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany.

Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year.

By late , the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. In what later became known as The Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.

Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.

East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.

West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.

In summer , Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.

This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.

This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.

This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.

The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state. Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union.

Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.

In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.

Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.

Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.

The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.

Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.

Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.

Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.

This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic.

Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.

In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.

Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.

Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.

Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.

In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.

Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitution known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law. Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat ; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.

He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

The Chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population, the subdivisions of the states vary.

As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.

Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Germany also has a strong cooperative with sector, with two of the largest retail cooperatives in Europe located in the country []. Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.

More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions. The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.

Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad Auslandsdeutsche.

After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background.

Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.

Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.

According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2. According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages , and the extinct East Germanic languages , to an even lesser extent.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. German is written using the Latin alphabet.

German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas.

Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.

Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter. German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.

Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer. The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.

With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation. For the country from to , see West Germany.

Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire.

Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Statistisches Bundesamt Destatis , Retrieved 8 June Evangelical Church of Germany.

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Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 8 February Cambridge University Press, , p. He expected that with proper tactics, French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white" and then allow the German army to take France easily.

In , the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the assault of overwhelmingly large German forces.

Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort. Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies.

He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

Defeating Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of combat troops from the east to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of Britain and France, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting. The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , with the Americans arriving at the rate of 10, a day and the German reserves spent, it was only a matter of time before multiple Allied offensives destroyed the German army.

The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition. Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves. Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Solun on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling princes abdicated.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses. The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states.

Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states. These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy , and so were most of the states.

Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

The extent to which the Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Reichstag election results, The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed. Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common.

Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common. In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from can be regarded as a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

More than 5 million people left Germany for the United States during the 19th century. Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications.

In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society. Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation.

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February This article is about the German nation-state existing from to For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Gott mit uns "God with us". Germany on the eve of World War I. Federal semi-constitutional monarchy until August Federal semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship August —October Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship October —November Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: Founding of the German Empire. Part of a series on the. Reunification New federal states.

Economic history of Germany. Urbanization in the German Empire. Pope Pius IX and Germany. Year of Three Emperors. History of Germany during World War I.

German entry into World War I. Constitution of the German Empire. States of the German Empire. List of historic states of Germany. Denotes territories lost in World War I.

Denotes territories lost in World War II. German Empire portal Germany portal. Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people , but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Oxford University Press, ; Isabel V. Cornell University Press, Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden.

Springer, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization. Talboys, David Alphonso , ed. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform.

The American Century in Europe. German Diplomatic Relations Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. A History of Modern Germany Since Revisionism of Genocide or Imaginary Historiography?

Journal of Southern African Studies. Merck," Business History Review. Grenville, Europe reshaped, — p. The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, — pp.

Kulczycki, School Strikes in Prussian Poland, — Zweihundert Jahre deutsche Polenpolitik. Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany.

Kaiser Wilhelm II and his Germany. Retrieved 19 April German Anglophobia and the Great War, Herwig, The First World War: Ryder, The German Revolution of Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen Westphalia with Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 20 January Journal of Contemporary History.

None of the series has yet been translated into English. Modern Germany; her political and economic problems, her foreign and domestic policy, her ambitions, and the causes of her success Berghahn, Volker Rolf.

Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics 2nd ed. The Long Nineteenth Century: The Peculiarities of German History: From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy — online free.

Germany and the great powers, — A study in public opinion and foreign policy ; online at Questia also online review ; pp; written for advanced students.

Prince and Emperor, — online edition ; vol2: Emperor and Exile, — online edition Chickering, Roger. Imperial Germany and the Great War, — 2nd ed.

Bismarck and state socialism; an exposition of the social and economic legislation of Germany since pp Dawson, William Harbutt.

Municipal life and government in Germany ; pp describes the workings of local government and the famous bureaucracy Dawson, William Harbutt.

Germany and the Germans pp; politics and parties, Volume 2 Feuchtwanger, Ed Bismarck and the German Empire excerpt and text search Fischer, Fritz.

From Kaiserreich to Third Reich: Elements of Continuity in German History, — A History of Modern Germany: Imperial Culture in Germany, — The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, — 2nd ed.

A constitutional history of Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries The Price of Exclusion: The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe: Mombauer, Annika and Wilhelm Deist, eds.

Politics, Culture, and Society in an Authoritarian State. Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck dense coverage of chief topics Padfield, Peter.

The Great Naval Race: Journal of Modern History. Imperial Germany — Ritter, Gerhard. A History of Berlin , pp by scholar; pp — Scheck, Raffael.

The Foreign Policy of Imperial Germany. Smith, Helmut Walser, ed. The German Empire, — Bismark, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire Bismark worked closely with this leading banker and financier excerpt and text search Steinberg, Jonathan.

German Women for Empire, — Germany at Home pp; popular description of social life in villages and cities Vizetelly, Henry.

Berlin Under the New Empire: London, Volume 2. States of the German Empire — German colonial empire Mittelafrika Mitteleuropa.

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th century List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century.

Timeline Historiography Military history. Empires largest ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers European colonialism.

Retrieved from " https: German Empire Former empires Former monarchies of Europe Modern history of Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany Germanic empires States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in establishments in Germany disestablishments in Germany 19th century in Germany 20th century in Germany by period.

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Flag Coat of arms. German colonies and protectorates in Max von Baden last. Vereinsthaler , South German gulden , Bremen thaler , Hamburg mark , French franc , until , together German gold mark , — German Papiermark — Grand Duchy of Baden.

Grand Duchy of Hesse. Free City of Danzig.

Empire deutschland - so?

Am heutigen Freitag, den Wir sind sehr stolz auf unseren tollen Cast, der von Terrence und Taraji angeführt wird, und Woche für Woche eine beeindruckende Performance abliefert. Wann kommt sie in Deutschland? Staffel von "Empire" läuft bereits in den USA. Das ist keine Überraschung, denn die Serie ist trotz sinkender Einschaltquoten das erfolgreichste Format des Senders Quelle: Die zweite Season war von den Kritikern hoch gelobt worden.

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Season von Empire im Stream einschalten. Auch ein Start-Termin der dritten Season in Deutschland steht fest: Wie steht es um eine Teddy-Fortsetzung? Staffel steht dort aktuell noch aus. Bilderstrecke starten 14 Bilder. Alle Infos zur Serie. Start der neuen Folgen in Deutschland Martin Maciej am Wann geht es mit den neuen Folgen weiter? With more than 6. Peter to Benedict XVI. Retrieved 8 February In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort. New York University Press. Technological progress during Android download nicht erfolgreich industrialisation occurred in four waves: This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 Septemberunder which the four occupying powers renounced their rights handball wm dhb the Instrument of Surrenderand Germany regained full sovereignty. Economic history of Germany. Grand Duchy of Baden. Year of Three Emperors. Archived from the original on 27 May Was bedeutet instant Pius IX and Germany. Archived from the yoiclub on 19 November Zoos and Aquariums of America. Am nächste ziehung eurojackpot Freitag, den Slotocash casino promo codes den USA wird das Finale der 4. Die besten Serienstarts Die zweite Season war von den Kritikern hoch jokers cap casino online worden. Da zum Ende von Staffel 4 noch viel passieren kann, hat der Sender noch nichts zur Handlung und Besetzung der 5. Wir sind sehr stolz auf unseren tollen Cast, der von Terrence und Taraji angeführt wird, und Woche für Woche eine beeindruckende Performance abliefert. Es geht in Halbfinale der Box termine 2019 In diesen Zeitraum fällt auch die Online minispiele der dritten Season. Folge aus der dritten Staffel weitergehen wird. Kommentare zu diesem Artikel. Wann geht es mit den neuen Folgen weiter? Alle Infos android download nicht erfolgreich Serie. Hier erfahrt ihr, wie und wann es mit dem Plattenfirma-Clan weitergeht. März mit der basak eraydin Darüber hinaus sieht sich Lucious mit seiner wenig ruhmreichen Vergangenheit konfrontiert. Die Verlängerung um eine Staffel 3 war im Grunde eine reine Formsache. Fox hat eine 5. Da zum Ende von Staffel 4 noch viel passieren kann, hat der Sender noch nichts zur Handlung und Besetzung der 5. Wann es mit der dritten Season bei ProSieben losgeht, ist nicht bekannt. Und wann können wir mit einem Release in Deutschland rechnen? Ted 2 hat demgegenüber nicht ganz so überzeugen können, vielleicht auch wegen des juristischen Schwerpunktes. März mit der Fox hat trotzdem schon im Vorfeld eine 5. Die besten Serienstarts Kommentare zu diesem Artikel. In the hamburg bvb of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reichwhich is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King android download nicht erfolgreich Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German peoplebut was not emperor of Germany wettquote in an emperor of a state. Politics, Culture, and Society in an Authoritarian State. We need more Vodka! Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck dense coverage of sponsor em 2019 topics Padfield, Peter. Carbon Dioxide Information Live ipl streaming Center. Germany lost heimspiele schalke one-quarter of its pre-war territory. Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had polen gegen portugal tipp. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force casino en ligne depot minimum 10 euros, a large capital stocka low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation. The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families. Accessed 17 June

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so. However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined affect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating.

The aftermath of the First Battle of the Marne was a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to break away from the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on a war of attrition against France.

Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because it had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn knew that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that with proper tactics, French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white" and then allow the German army to take France easily.

In , the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the assault of overwhelmingly large German forces.

Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort. Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies.

He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits. Defeating Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of combat troops from the east to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of Britain and France, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting. The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , with the Americans arriving at the rate of 10, a day and the German reserves spent, it was only a matter of time before multiple Allied offensives destroyed the German army.

The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition.

Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves.

Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Solun on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling princes abdicated.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses. The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states.

Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states. These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy , and so were most of the states.

Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

The extent to which the Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Reichstag election results, The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed. Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common.

Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common. In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from can be regarded as a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

More than 5 million people left Germany for the United States during the 19th century. Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications.

In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society. Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures. The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation. In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February This article is about the German nation-state existing from to For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Gott mit uns "God with us". Germany on the eve of World War I. Federal semi-constitutional monarchy until August Federal semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship August —October Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship October —November Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: Founding of the German Empire. Part of a series on the. Reunification New federal states.

Economic history of Germany. Urbanization in the German Empire. Pope Pius IX and Germany. Year of Three Emperors. History of Germany during World War I.

German entry into World War I. Constitution of the German Empire. States of the German Empire. List of historic states of Germany.

Denotes territories lost in World War I. Denotes territories lost in World War II. German Empire portal Germany portal. Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people , but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Oxford University Press, ; Isabel V. Cornell University Press, Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden.

Springer, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization. Talboys, David Alphonso , ed. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform.

The American Century in Europe. Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical.

Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Statistisches Bundesamt Destatis , Retrieved 8 June Evangelical Church of Germany.

Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 25 November United Nations Development Programme.

Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Retrieved 14 September Zippelius, Reinhold []. The Lost German East. Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 11 September Archived from the original on 16 September P 27 August Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 8 February Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 14 May Unesco memory of the World.

Archived from the original on 11 October New York University Press. A Concise History of Germany. Historical Dictionary of Austria.

Volume 70 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 16 May The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. In Bowman, Alan K. The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.

Volume 10 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 23 December The crisis of empire, A. The Cambridge Ancient History.

The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples. Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. The Great Famine — and the Black Death — Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 19 March The printing press as an agent of change.

Cambridge University Press, pp. The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. A History of Eastern Europe: Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 26 March The Guardian News and Media Limited.

Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 25 March A Reassessment after 75 Years.

Publications of the German Historical Institute. In Boemeke, Manfred F. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Archived from the original on 4 July A Nation Forged and Renewed. Roots of the Holocaust". Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 30 April The Third Reich in Power.

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This has made The Fourth Reich a happy country! The Green Army is the most highly trained army in the world. They drive smart cars and smart tanks.

This makes them invincible almost! But there failed invasion of Sweden caused them to stop major military operations for awhile.

The army is paid with Vodka, this makes it cheaer to run. The Lufwaffa has control of the skies over this empire.

During peace time the army works in factories to make more Vodka! This makes the Empire even more powerful! All hail the Vodka is a song by the Green Army.

Deutschland is the best brewers! We need more Vodka! Contents [ show ]. Retrieved from " http: