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German Die Versicherung trägt einen Bypass, und die Angioplastie, aber bis neulich trägt sie keine Ernährung und Lebensart. In addition, we have included websites of international organizations such as the European Union. German Das ist so etwa der Entwurf den ich auf eine Servierte gemacht hab. August um Konzept , Konzeption , Planung. The editorially approved PONS Online Dictionary with text translation tool now includes a database with hundreds of millions of real translations from the Internet. In addition, we have begun to apply this technology to further languages in order to build up usage-example databases for other language pairs. Geschrieben wurden die Texte im Polnisch des Insgesamt 41 Ausgaben mit einer durchschnittlichen Auflage von bis Exemplaren wurden gedruckt.

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Polish has six oral vowels all monophthongs and two nasal vowels. The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: The full set of consonants, together with their most common spellings, can be presented as follows although other phonological analyses exist:.

Neutralization occurs between voiced — voiceless consonant pairs in certain environments: For details, see Voicing and devoicing in the article on Polish phonology.

Most Polish words are paroxytones that is, the stress falls on the second-to-last syllable of a polysyllabic word , although there are exceptions.

Polish permits complex consonant clusters, which historically often arose from the disappearance of yers. Polish can have word-initial and word-medial clusters of up to four consonants, whereas word-final clusters can have up to five consonants.

Unlike languages such as Czech , Polish does not have syllabic consonants — the nucleus of a syllable is always a vowel. It also cannot precede i or y.

The predominant stress pattern in Polish is penultimate stress — in a word of more than one syllable, the next-to-last syllable is stressed.

Alternating preceding syllables carry secondary stress, e. Some loanwords , particularly from the classical languages , have the stress on the antepenultimate third-from-last syllable.

When additional syllables are added to such words through inflection or suffixation , the stress normally becomes regular.

Over time, loanwords become nativized to have penultimate stress. Reanalysis of the endings as inflections when attached to verbs causes the different colloquial stress patterns.

These stress patterns are however nowadays sanctioned as part of the colloquial norm of standard Polish. Some common word combinations are stressed as if they were a single word.

The Polish alphabet derives from the Latin script , but includes certain additional letters formed using diacritics. The Polish alphabet was one of three major forms of Latin-based orthography developed for Slavic languages, the others being Czech orthography and Croatian orthography , the latter being a 19th-century invention trying to make a compromise between the first two.

Kashubian uses a Polish-based system, Slovak uses a Czech-based system, and Slovene follows the Croatian one; the Sorbian languages blend the Polish and the Czech ones.

The letters q, v, x are often not considered part of the Polish alphabet; they are used only in foreign words and names. Polish orthography is largely phonemic —there is a consistent correspondence between letters or digraphs and trigraphs and phonemes for exceptions see below.

The letters of the alphabet and their normal phonemic values are listed in the following table. The following digraphs and trigraphs are used:.

Voiced consonant letters frequently come to represent voiceless sounds as shown in the tables ; this occurs at the end of words and in certain clusters, due to the neutralization mentioned in the Phonology section above.

Occasionally also voiceless consonant letters can represent voiced sounds in clusters. The exceptions to the above rule are certain loanwords from Latin, Italian, French, Russian or English—where s before i is pronounced as s , e.

In other loanwords the vowel i is changed to y , e. Syria , Sybir , synchronizacja , Syrakuzy. Digraphs and trigraphs are used:. Most Polish speakers, however, do not consider palatalisation of k, g, c h or l as creating new sounds.

In several cases it determines the meaning, for example: In occasional words, letters that normally form a digraph are pronounced separately.

There are certain clusters where a written consonant would not be pronounced. Polish is a highly inflected language , with relatively free word order , although the dominant arrangement is subject—verb—object SVO.

There are no articles , and subject pronouns are often dropped. Nouns belong to one of three genders: A distinction is also made between animate and inanimate masculine nouns in the singular , and between masculine personal and non-masculine-personal nouns in the plural.

There are seven cases: Adjectives agree with nouns in terms of gender, case and number. Most short adjectives and their derived adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by inflection the superlative is formed by prefixing naj- to the comparative.

Verbs are of imperfective or perfective aspect , often occurring in pairs. A similar sentence type in the past tense uses the passive participle with the ending -o , as in widziano ludzi "people were seen".

Yes-no questions both direct and indirect are formed by placing the word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie , before the verb or other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy "never" or nic "nothing" , effectively creating a double negative.

Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement. Zero and cardinal numbers higher than five except for those ending with the digit 2, 3 or 4 but not ending with 12, 13 or 14 govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or accusative.

Special forms of numbers collective numerals are used with certain classes of noun, which include dziecko "child" and exclusively plural nouns such as drzwi "door".

Polish has, over the centuries, borrowed a number of words from other languages. When borrowing, pronunciation was adapted to Polish phonemes and spelling was altered to match Polish orthography.

In addition, word endings are liberally applied to almost any word to produce verbs , nouns , adjectives , as well as adding the appropriate endings for cases of nouns, adjectives, diminutives , double-diminutives, augmentatives , etc.

Depending on the historical period, borrowing has proceeded from various languages. Notable influences have been Latin 9th—18th centuries , Czech 10th and 14th—15th centuries , Italian 15th—16th centuries , French 18th—19th centuries , German 13—15th and 18th—20th centuries , Hungarian 14th—16th centuries and Turkish 17th century.

Currently, English words are the most common imports to Polish. The Latin language, for a very long time the only official language of the Polish state, has had a great influence on Polish.

Many Polish words rzeczpospolita from res publica were direct borrowings from Latin. Latin was known to a larger or smaller degree by most of the numerous szlachta in the 16th to 18th centuries and it continued to be extensively taught at secondary schools until World War II.

Apart from dozens of loanwords, its influence can also be seen in a number of verbatim Latin phrases in Polish literature especially from the 19th century and earlier.

During the 12th and 13th centuries, Mongolian words were brought to the Polish language during wars with the armies of Genghis Khan and his descendants, e.

A later word of Italian origin is autostrada from Italian "autostrada", highway. In the 18th century, with the rising prominence of France in Europe, French supplanted Latin as an important source of words.

Some French borrowings also date from the Napoleonic era, when the Poles were enthusiastic supporters of Napoleon.

Many words were borrowed from the German language from the sizable German population in Polish cities during medieval times.

German words found in the Polish language are often connected with trade, the building industry, civic rights and city life. Some words were assimilated verbatim, for example handel trade and dach roof ; others are pronounced the same, but differ in writing schnur — sznur cord.

As a result of being neighbours with Germany, Polish has many German expressions which have become literally translated calques.

The contacts with Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century brought many new words, some of them still in use, such as: From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in through the early years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created in , Poland was the most tolerant country of Jews in Europe.

As a result, many Polish words come from Yiddish , spoken by the large Polish Jewish population that existed until the Holocaust.

Borrowed Yiddish words include bachor an unruly boy or child , bajzel slang for mess , belfer slang for teacher , ciuchy slang for clothing , cymes slang for very tasty food , geszeft slang for business , kitel slang for apron , machlojka slang for scam , mamona money , manele slang for oddments , myszygene slang for lunatic , pinda slang for girl, pejoratively , plajta slang for bankruptcy , rejwach noise , szmal slang for money , and trefny dodgy.

Concatenation of parts of words e. When borrowing English words, Polish often changes their spelling. To make the word plural, -cja becomes -cje.

Examples of this include inauguracja inauguration , dewastacja devastation , recepcja reception , konurbacja conurbation and konotacje connotations.

The Polish language has influenced others. There is a substantial number of Polish words which officially became part of Yiddish, once the main language of European Jews.

Quite a few culinary loanwords exist in German and in other languages, some of which describe distinctive features of Polish cuisine.

As far as pierogi concerned, the original Polish word is already in plural sing. The word spruce entered the English language from the Polish name of Prusy a historical region, today part of Poland.

It became spruce because in Polish, z Prus , sounded like "spruce" in English transl. The production preparation process took almost two years, with the assembly of pre-production test series from parts imported from Italy commencing on 28 November By the end of the year, 75 such cars had been assembled.

There were two main versions, differing in the engine employed: The model entered production in and the in The ceased production in the s.

Polish cars differed in detail from Italian ones: It also had more durable all-around disc brakes. Unlike the Fiat , the car was also available as an estate PF p Kombi , and a pickup developed in Poland after Italian Fiat production ended in An unusual variant built in a small series was a lengthened cabriolet with three rows of seats, used by the tourist bureau in Warsaw for sightseeing.

There was a minor restyling in , when the chrome front grille was replaced with a black plastic one, and in , when a new black plastic grille arrived along with new turn indicators, enlarged horizontal rear lamps instead of pairs of thin vertical ones , and a slightly modernised interior: The power of both engines was also raised by 3.

In the late s the p received its last upgrade in form of power train from the FSO Polonez and a new instrument cluster featuring round gauges in place of the classic Fiat speedometer.

By that time the design was 24 years old and used mechanicals which were essentially 30 years old, with only minor improvements.

From , a version with an entirely new body was available — the FSO Polonez. The Polonez survived with improvements until It retained s styling, durable but comfortable leatherette seats and cavernous amounts of space.

Mechanically, the p was rugged and reliable.